100% Fruit and Vegetable Juices

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans[1] includes 100% fruit juice in the fruit group as counting toward daily fruit recommendations but recommends limiting 100% fruit juice to 1 CUP (237 mL) with the remainder as whole or cut fruit.

Aside from increased risk of tooth decay in children and small amounts of weight gain in young children and adults, there is no conclusive evidence that consumption of 100% fruit juice has other adverse health effects[2]. The study also found no significant associations between juice and weight gain in adults.  For children, 100% fruit juice consumption was not associated with a BMI z score increase in children aged 7–18 y. Drinking 1 serving of 100% fruit juice per day was associated with a small amount of weight gain in children aged 1–6 y (BMI z score change of 0.09 units over 1 y)[3]. However, children who consumed ≥1 serving/d of 100% juice also had a greater risk of tooth decay than those with ≤1 serving/d consumption.[4]

100% Fruit and Vegetable Juices

Fruit and vegetable juices can be important sources of potassium; vitamins A, C, E, K, and B-6; thiamin; niacin; folate; and choline, as well as potassium, iron, manganese, and fiber[5]. In addition, phytonutrients such as flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols) and carotenoids, contained in fruit and vegetable juices, have health benefit[6].

Try to avoid introducing juice until the child is a toddler. If juice is introduced, wait until 12 months and limit consumption to 4–6 oz (118–177 mL).[7] [8]


[1] U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025.
9th Edition. December 2020. Available at DietaryGuidelines.gov.

[2] Auerbach BJ, Dibey S, Vallila-Buchman P, Kratz M, Krieger J. Review of 100% fruit juice and chronic health conditions: implications for sugar-sweetened beverage policy. Adv Nutr. 2018;9:78–85. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[3] Auerbach BJ, Wolf FM, Hikida A, Vallila-Buchman P, Littman A, Thompson D, Louden D, Taber DR, Krieger J. Fruit juice and change in BMI: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2017;139:e20162454. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[4] Salas MMS, Nascimento GG, Vargas-Ferreira F, Tarquinio SBC, Huysmans MCDNJM, Demarco FF. Diet influenced tooth erosion prevalence in children and adolescents: results of a meta-analysis and meta-regression. J Dent. 2015;43:865–75. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[5] Showell P, Pehrsson P. National nutrient database for standard reference, release 28. [Internet] Beltsville, MD: USDA, Agricultural Research Service; 2015; [cited 2 July, 2019]. Available from: http://ars.usda.gov/. [Google Scholar]

[6] Rodriguez-Casado A. The health potential of fruits and vegetables phytochemicals: notable examples. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016;56:1097–107. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[7] Grummer-Strawn LM, Scanlon KS, Fein SB. Infant feeding and feeding transitions during the first year of life. Pediatrics. 2008;122(Suppl 2):S36–42. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[8] Mario G Ferruzzi, Jirayu Tanprasertsuk, Penny Kris-Etherton, Connie M Weaver, and Elizabeth J Johnson: Perspective: The Role of Beverages as a Source of Nutrients and Phytonutrients, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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