Approximately 75% of the US population aged ≥20 y reported drinking coffee; 49% reported drinking coffee daily[1].

Although coffee has very little nutrient content, it contributes ∼5% of the potassium intake in the United States, which is similar to vegetables (excluding potatoes), fruit, and 100% juices[2], and can have low but variable concentrations of fluoride[3].

Approximately 75% of the US population aged ≥20 y reported drinking coffee; 49% reported drinking coffee daily .

There is evidence that, in healthy adults, moderate coffee consumption (4–5 cups/d or 946–1183 mL/d) has beneficial effects for a number of chronic diseases. A recent review evaluated the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and RCTs in adults relating to coffee intake and health outcomes[4]. Of 59 unique outcomes examined in 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality; Parkinson disease; and type 2 diabetes. Of 12 unique acute outcomes examined in 9 meta-analyses of RCTs, coffee was associated with a rise in serum lipids, but this result was affected by significant heterogeneity among the study designs and likely by coffee preparation methods. The authors concluded that the robustness of many of the results indicated that coffee can be part of a healthful diet. In part, the beneficial effects could be due to phenolic acids contained in coffee. Most negative impacts of serum lipids are driven by select sterols, including kahweol and cafesterol[5], that are present in percolated or boiled coffee but reduced greatly in paper-filtered drip coffee and espresso preparations[6] [7] [8].

[1] Loftfield E, Freedman ND, Dodd KW, Vogtmann E, Xiao Q, Sinha R, Graubard BI. Coffee drinking is widespread in the United States, but usual intake varies by key demographic and lifestyle factors. J Nutr. 2016;146:1762–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[2] Hoy M, Goldman J. Potassium intake of the U.S. population: What We Eat In America, NHANES 2009–2010. [Internet] Beltsville, MD: Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA; 2012; [cited 10 March, 2019]. Dietary Data Brief No. 10. Available from: [Google Scholar]

[3] Cutrufelli R, Pehrsson P, Haytowitz D, Patterson K, Holden J. USDA national fluoride database of selected beverages and foods, release 2. [Internet] Beltsville, MD: Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA; 2005; [cited 19 November, 2018]. Available from: [Google Scholar]

[4] Grosso G, Godos J, Galvano F, Giovannucci EL. Coffee, caffeine, and health outcomes: an umbrella review. Annu Rev Nutr. 2017;37:131–56. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[5] Urgert R, Schulz AG, Katan MB. Effects of cafestol and kahweol from coffee grounds on serum lipids and serum liver enzymes in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:149–54. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[6] Gross G, Jaccaud E, Huggett AC. Analysis of the content of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee brews. Food Chem Toxicol. 1997;35:547–54. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

[7] Urgert R, van der Weg G, Kosmeijer-Schuil TG, van de Bovenkamp P, Hovenier R, Katan MB. Levels of the cholesterol-elevating diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in various coffee brews. J Agric Food Chem. 1995;43:2167–72. [Google Scholar]

[8] Mario G Ferruzzi, Jirayu Tanprasertsuk, Penny Kris-Etherton, Connie M Weaver, and Elizabeth J Johnson: Perspective: The Role of Beverages as a Source of Nutrients and Phytonutrients,

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